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Matter


Matter, everything we can see and touch !


Introduction
A Solid
A Liquid
A Gas
Volume
Density
Mass
Weight


IntroductionTo top of page.

Matter consist of physical properties namely, volume, density, mass and weight. Matter may undergo physical changes. Matter occupy space and have mass. Phases of matter are defined as a solid, or as a liquid or as a gas. Units of measurement are in the metric system, a decimal system based on the number of 10 and multiples of 10.

Figure 1: Properties and Phases of Matter

Figure 1: Properties and Phases of Matter


Figure two show the phases of matter and the physical processes that are needed to change from one phase to another.

On the inside of the triangle are processes indicated with thin orange arrows (sublimation, melting, evaporation) that need energy, these are described as endothermic. An example is a substance on a heated surface, where the substance is undergoing a process of melting, evaporation or sublimation.

On the outside of the triangle are processes indicated with thick orange arrows (deposition, freezing, condensation) that give off energy, these are described as exothermic. An example is a substance in a cooling environment, where the substance is undergoing a process of condensation, deposition or freezing.

It is important to note that phase change is caused by heat. Heat flowing into a process will cause increased intermolecular activity, for example increased rotational, vibrational and translational energy. Heat flowing out of a process will cause a decrease in intermolecular activity. Substances react differently when pressure is applied. Pressure play an important role and composition of a mixture is also important.

Figure 2: Phases of Matter and the Physical Processes Between each Phase

Figure 2: Phases of Matter and the Physical Processes Between each Phase


A SolidTo top of page.

  • We may define a solid as having a definite volume and a definite shape.
  • A solid keep its volume and shape.
  • Examples of solids are, a dumbbell, a piece of rock, and a cork stopper.
  • Dumbbell made of cast iron. Rock. Rock.
  • The particles in a solid are in a rigid shape and vibrate in their positions, not flowing around freely.
  • A solid may be described as amorphous (pronounced uh-mor-fuhs), where under certain conditions the solid may lose its definite shape and start to flow slowly.
  • A solid may have the ability to contract or expand as the temperature change from warm to cold or cold to warm.

A LiquidTo top of page.

  • We may define a liquid as having a definite volume, but not having a definite shape.
  • The particles that the liquid is made of, move around more freely.
  • The liquid will take up the shape of the container that it is stored in.
  • Viscosity (pronounced vihs-kahs-uh-tee) is the liquids ability to resist flow.
  • A liquid may have the ability to contract or expand as the temperature change from warm to cold or cold to warm.

A GasTo top of page.

  • We may define a gas as not having a definite volume and not having a definite shape.
  • The particles that a gas is made of, can spread out to fill the entire container, a larger volume.
  • The particles that a gas is made of, can move closer together, for example compressed into a smaller volume.
  • Boyle's law define that if the volume of a fixed amount of gas increase, the pressure of the gas will decrease. If the volume of a fixed amount of gas decrease, the pressure of the gas will increase.
  • Charles's law define that if the temperature of a fixed amount of gas increase, than the volume of the gas increase. If the temperature of a fixed amount of gas decrease, than the volume of the gas decrease.
  • Pressure, temperature and volume have a definite effect on a gas.
  • Avogadro's law define that when a constant temperature and a constant pressure is applied to equal volumes of gasses, than the gasses are made up of an equal quantity of particles.

VolumeTo top of page.

An object occupy a certain amount of space, this is described as the objects volume. Volume may be measured in L liter, mL milliliter, cm³ cubic centimeter.

Figure 3: Volume

Figure 3: Volume


DensityTo top of page.

All matter consist of a certain amount of density and provide for the ability to distinguish and compare between different types of matter. The volumes need to be of equal quantity, to compare the masses of different objects. The density of an object is equal to the ratio of the mass to the volume. Density may be measured in g/mL grams per milliliter, g/cm³ grams per cubic centimeter.

Figure 4: Density Formula Triangle

Figure 4: Density Formula Triangle


Figure 5: Density

Figure 5: Density


MassTo top of page.

A measure of the quantity of matter an object contain. The mass of an object stay the same, if it is measured on earth or on the moon. Matter will need to be added or removed for the mass to change. Inertia (pronounced ihn-er-shuh) is the object's ability to resist any change in its motion. A greater inertia mean the object has more mass. Mass may be measured in kg kilogram, mg milligram, g gram.

Figure 6: Mass

Figure 6: Mass


WeightTo top of page.

A measure of the quantity of matter an object contain, where the pulling force of gravity has an effect on the object. When a gravitational force of 9.8 newton pull on an object with a mass of 1 kilogram, the weight of the object is 9.8N. Weight may be measured in N newton.

Figure 7: Weight

Figure 7: Weight




End of Page

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Astronomy related links.
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Science experiments in electrophotography !
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Links related to capacitors.
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